"...take a piece of smooth ivory--you have one prepared in your drawing-box; take your palette, mix your freshest, finest, clearest tints; choose your most delicate camel-hair pencils; delineate carefully the loveliest face you can imagine."
--Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte




American Portrait Miniatures:

Aronson, Julie, and Wieseman,Marjorie E., Perfect Likeness: European and American Portrait Miniatures from the Cincinnati Art Museum, Yale University Press, 2006.

Bardo, Pamela Pierrepont, English and Continental Portrait Miniatures – the Latter-Schlesinger Collection, New Orleans, 1978.

Barker, Virgil, American Painting: History and Interpretation, Macmillan, 1950.

Barratt, Carrie Rebora, and Zabar, Lori, American Portrait Miniatures in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2010

Belknap, Henry Wycoff, Artists and Craftsmen of Essex County, Massachusetts, The Essex Institute, 1927.

Benes, Peter, Painting and Portrait Making in the American Northeast, Boston University, 1994.

Bolton, Theodore, Early American Portrait Painters in Miniature, F. F. Sherman, 1921.

Bolton-Smith, Robin, Portrait Miniatures in the National Museum of American Art, University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Burroughs, Alan, Limners and Likenesses, Harvard University, 1965.

Cleveland Museum of Art, Portrait Miniatures: The Edward H. Greene Collection, 1951.

Dunbar, Philip, Portrait Miniatures on Ivory 1750-1850: From the Collection of The Connecticut Historical Society, Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin,October, 1964.

Dunlap, William, History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States, , 1st edition New York, 1834; second edition Boston, 1918; 3rd edition Benjamin Blom, NY NY, 1965.

Eschwey, Maymie, Portraits in Miniature: An Introductory Guide, Alpha Editions, 1988.

Fink, Abraham Jay, Four Centuries of Miniature Painting, , Baltimore Museum of Art, 1958.

Frank, Robin Jaffee, Love and Loss: American Portrait and Mourning Miniatures, Yale University Press, 2000.

Gerdts, William H. , Early New Jersey Artists, 18th and 19th Centuries, Newark Museum, 1957.

Graphic Arts Pavillion, National Miniature Exhibition, 1933.

Groce, George, and Wallace, David, New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America 1564-1860 . Yale University Press, 5th printing, 1975.

Harris, Neil, The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years 1790-1860, The University of Chicago, 1982.

Hewes, Lauren B., Portraits in the Collection of the American Antiquarian Society, American Antiquarian Society, 2005.

Hopkins, Viola, The Peter Marie Collection, NYHS Journal, Spring, 2006.

Huntsville Museum of Art,, American Miniature Portraits on Ivory from the Collection of Linda and Raymond White, 1996.

Johnson, Dale T., American Portrait Miniatures in the Manney Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991.

London, Hannah Ruth, Miniatures and Silhouettes of Early Jews, C. E. Tuttle, 1970.

Mahé, John A. and Rosanne McCaffrey, eds. 1987, Encyclopedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918, New Orleans: Historic New Orleans Collection

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Catalogue of an Exhibition of Miniatures Painted in America 1729-1850, 1927.

Miles, Ellen, Portrait Painting in America, The Nineteenth Century, Main Street/Universe Books, 1977.

Neville Parker, Barbara Neville, New England Miniatures: 1750-1850, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1957.

New York Historical Society, Catalogue of American Portraits in the New York Historical Society, New York Historical Society/Yale University Press, 1941.

Oliver, Andrew, Portraits in the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1988.

PAFA, Catalogue of the Annual Water Color and Miniature Exhibitions, various years.

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Paintings from Europe and the Americas in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1994.

Reynolds, Graham, The Starr Collection of Miniatures, Nelson Gallery Atkins Museum, 1971.

Rosenbach Museum, The Spanish Golden Age in Miniature, 1988.

Rutledge, Anna Wells, Artists In The Life of Charleston: Through Colony and State, from Restoration to Reconstruction, American Philosophical Society, 1949.

R.W. Norton Art Gallery, Portrait Miniatures in Early American History: 1750-1840, 1976.

Schloss, Christine Skeeles, The Beardsley Limner and some Contemporaries, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1973.

Severns, Martha R., The Miniature Portrait Collection of the Carolina Art Association, 1985.

Strickler, Susan E., American Portrait Miniatures: The Worcester Art Museum Collection, 1989.

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, An Exhibition of Virginia Miniatures, 1941.

Wainwright, Nicholas B., Paintings and Miniatures at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1974.

Virginia Museum, Painting in the South: 1563-1980, Richmond.

Wehle, Harry B., American Miniatures: Metropolitan Museum of Art 1730-1850, Doubleday Page & Co., 1927.

Wharton, Anne Hollingsworth, Heirlooms in Miniatures, Kessinger Publishing, reprinted 2007.

Wharton, Anne Hollingsworth, Salons Colonial and Republican, Kessinger Publishing, reprinted 2004.

Specific American Miniaturists:

Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Robert Field, 1978.

Barratt, Carrie Rebora, The Art of Henry Inman, National Portrait Gallery: Smithsonian, 1987.

Bolton, Theodore, John Wesley Jarvis: An Account of His Life and the First Catalogue of His Work, 1938.

Bolton, Theodore, and Cortelyou,Irwin, Ezra Ames of Albany: Portrait Painter, Craftsman, Royal Arch Mason, Banker, 1768-1836, New York, 1955.

Connecticut Historical Bulletin, Elkanah Tisdale , Spring, 1984.

Dearborn, Mona Leithiser, Anson Dickinson, The Celebrated Miniature Painter, 1779-1852, Connecticut Historical Society, 1983.

Dickson, Harold E., John Wesley Jarvis: American Painter, Kessinger Publishing, reprint, 2007.

Floyd, William Barrow, Jouett-Bush-Frazer: Early Kentucky Artists, 1968.

Fuller, Blair, Art in the Blood: Seven Generations of American Artists in the Fuller Family, Creative Arts Book Company, 2001.

Guild, James, From Turnbridge, Vermont to London, England: The Journal of James Guild, Peddler, Tinker, Schoolmaster, Portrait Painter from 1818-1824

Huger Smith, Alice R., and. Huger Smith, D. E., Charles Fraser, F. F. Sherman, 1924.

Keyes, Wilma, George Freeman, Miniaturist, Storrs CT, 1980.

Lane, Harlan, A Deaf Artist in Early America: The Worlds of John Brewster Jr., Beacon Press, 2004.

Little, Nina Fletcher, Asahel Powers: Painter of Vermont Faces, Williamsburg, VA: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, 1973.

MacMullen, Ramsay, Sisters of the Brush: Their Family, Art, Life & Letters 1797-1833, Past Times Press, 1997.

Maryland Historical Society, St. Memin in Maryland, 1951.

McInnis, Maurie D., Henry Benbridge (1743-1812):Charleston Portrait Painter, Gibbes Museum of Art, 2000.

Miles, Ellen G., Saint Memin and the Neoclassical Profile Portrait in America, National Portrait Gallery, 1994.

Mitchell, Lucy B., The Paintings of James Sandford Ellsworth, Itinerant Folk Artist: 1802-1873, Williamsburg, VA: Abby Aldrich Folk Art Collection, 1974.

Olmsted, Anna Wetherill, Ethel Frances Mundy (1876-1964), 1969.

Piers, Harry, Robert Field: Portrait Painter in Oils, Miniature and Water-Colours and Engraver, F. F. Sherman, 1927.

Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy, 1770-1870, Abbeville Press, 1996.

Pleasants, J. Hall, Saint Memin : Watercolor Miniatures, 1947.

Richards, Nancy E., "A Most Perfect Resemblance at Moderate Prices: The Miniatures of David Boudon," The Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 9, pp 77-101, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1974.

Ridley, Jo Ann, Looking For Eulabee Dix, National Museum of Women in the Arts , 1997.

Schwarz , Frank S. , A Gallery Collects Peales, Frank S. Schwarz and Son, 1987.

Sellers, Charles Coleman, Portraits and Miniatures by Charles Willson Peale, American Philosophical Society, 1951.

Severens, Martha, Charles Fraser of Charleston: Essays on the Man, His Art, and His Times, Charleston SC: Carolina Art Association, 1983.

Stewart, Robert G., Henry Benbridge (1743-1812) American Portrait Painter, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1971

Tolman, Ruel Pardee, The Life and Works of Edward Green Malbone 1777-1807, New York, 1958.

Warner, Deborah Jean, and Ariail, Robert B., Alvan Clark and Sons: Artists in Optics, Willman-Bell, 1996.

Whistler House Museum, Samuel P Howes : Portrait Painter, 1986.

White , Raymond D. John Wood Dodge , Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Spring, 2000.

Worsley, Stephen C., Joseph-Pierre Picot de Limoelan de Clorivere: A Portrait Miniaturist Revisited , Journal of Southern Decorative Arts, Winter 2002.

American Portrait Miniatures, Online Articles:

An Art in Living: Lucy May Stanton, by Betty Alice Fowler

The Art of John Henry Brown, The Magazine Antiques, November 2004, by Anne Verplanck

Dismissed Yet Disarming: The Portrait Miniature Revival, 1890-1930, Maryann Sudnick Gunderson, November 2003

From Hand to Heart: The Art of the American Miniature Portrait by Peter J. Baldaia

John O'Brien Inman: American Artist, The Magazine Antiques, November 1998, by Carolyn B. Wilkinson

John Wood Dodge and the Portrait Miniature, The Magazine Antiques, November 2003, by Raymond White

The Legacy of Nathaniel Rogers (1787-1844), by Natalie A. Naylor

Moses B. Russell: Yankee Miniaturist, The Magazine Antiques, November 2002 , by Randall L. Holton, Charles A. Gilday

Mrs. Moses B. Russell, Boston Miniaturist: Bibliography, The Magazine Antiques, December 1999, by Randall L. Holton, Charles A. Gilday

Object Lessons: Miniature Worlds by Catherine Kelly

Portraits in Miniature: Anna Claypoole Peale and Caroline Schetky, The Magazine Antiques, February 2002, by Anne Sue Hirshorn

The Portrait Miniatures of Eulabee Dix: Watercolor Painter, The Magazine Antiques, November 1994, by Anne Sue Hirshorn

Self-Fashioning in Sarah Goodridge’s Self-Portraits by Chris Packard

British Portrait Miniatures:

Archer, Mildred, India and British Portraiture, 1770-1825, Sotheby’s Publications, 1979.

Arturi Phillips, Roger and Carmela, A Thing Apart, The W R Johnston Collection, Australia, 2006.

Bayne-Powell, Robert , Catalogue of Portrait Miniatures : In the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Fitzwilliam Museum Publications), Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Bryant, Julius, Miniatures at Kenwood: The Draper Gift, English Heritage, 1997.

Butler, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures, Studio Editions, 1994.

Caffrey, Paul, Treasures to Hold: Irish and English Miniatures 1650-1850 from the National Gallery of Ireland, National Gallery of Ireland, 2000.

Coffin, Sarah, and Hofstetter, Bodo, Portrait Miniatures in Enamel: The Gilbert Collection, Philip Wilson Publishers, 2003.

Coombs, Katharine, The Portrait Miniature in England, Victoria and Albert Publications, 1998.

Day, Charles William, The Art of Miniature Painting, London, 1865.

Foskett, Daphne, Miniatures Dictionary and Guide, Antique Collectors Club, 1987.

Foster, J. J., Chats on Old Miniatures, T. Fisher Unwin, 1908.

Foster, J. J., A Dictionary of Painters of Miniatures, , London, 1926.

Foster, J. J., Miniature Painters British and Foreign With Some Account of Those Who Practiced in America in the Eighteenth Century, E.P. Dutton and Company, 1903.

Gibson, W. P., Wallace Collection Catalogue, London, Wallace Collection, 1935.

Lister, Raymond, The British Miniature, Pitman, 1951.

Long, Basil, British Miniaturists, London, 1929.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures from Scottish Private Collection,, National Galleries of Scotland, 2007.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures From the Daphne Foskett Collection, National Galleries of Scotland, 2006.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures from the Dumas Egerton Collection, National Galleries of Scotland, 2002.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures from the Merchiston Collection, National Galleries of Scotland, 2005.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures: National Gallery of Scotland, National Galleries of Scotland , 2006.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures from the Clarke Collection, National Galleries of Scotland, 2001.

Lloyd, Stephen, Portrait Miniatures from the Collection of the Duke of Buccleuch , National Galleries of Scotland, 1996.

Lloyd, Christopher, ,Masterpieces in Little : Portrait Miniatures from the Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, 1997.

Mayne, Arthur, British Profile Miniaturists, , Boston Book and Art Pub., 1970.

Murdoch, John, The English Miniature, Yale University Press, 1982.

Murrell, Jim, The Way Howe to Lymme,

Propert, Lumsden, History of Miniature Art, London, 1887.

Reynolds, Graham, British Portrait Miniatures, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Reynolds, Graham, The Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Miniatures: In the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen, Royal Collection, 2000.

Reynolds, Graham, European Miniatures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996.

Reynolds, Graham, Fitzwilliam Museum Handbooks: British Portrait Miniatures, 1998.

Reynolds, Graham, The Wallace Collection: Catalogue of Miniatures, Wallace Collection, 1980.

Stewart , Brian, Dictionary of British Portrait Painters, 2006.

Strong, Roy, The English Renaissance Miniature, Thames & Hudson, Ltd., 1983.

Strong, Roy, Artists of the Tudor Court:The Portrait Miniature Rediscovered, 1520-1620, Victoria and Albert Museum, 1983.

Summer, Ann, and Walker, Richard, Secret Passion to Noble Fashion: The World of the Portrait Miniature, Holburne Museum of Art, 1999.

Victoria & Albert Museum, Portrait Miniatures, 1959.

Walker, Richard, Miniatures: A Selection from the Ashmolean , Ashmolean Museum, 1997.

Walker, Richard, 300 Years of the English Miniature Illustrated from the Collections of the National Portrait Gallery, London, 1998.

Walker, Richard, and Laing, Alastair, Portrait Miniatures in National Trust Houses : Volume 1, Antique Collectors Club, 2003.

Walker, Richard, and Laing, Alastair, Portrait Miniatures in National Trust Houses : Volume 2 , Antique Collectors Club, 2005.

Walker, Richard, Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen : The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Catalogue of Miniatures in the Collection of H M The Queen), Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Walpole, Horace, Anecdotes of Painting in England, London, Dodsley, 1786.

Williamson, George C., The Miniature Collector: A Guide to Collectors of Old Portrait Miniatures, Herbert Jenkins, 1921.

Williamson, George C., Portrait Miniatures: From the time of Holbein 1531 to That of Sir William Ross 1860. A Handbook for Collectors, George Bell and Sons, 1897.

Williamson, George C., The Art of the Miniature Painter, Chapman and Hall, Ltd, 1926.

Williamson, George, C., How to Identify Portrait Miniatures, George Bell, 1904.

Winter, Carl, Elizabethan Miniatures, Penguin, 1943.

Wood, Christopher, Dictionary of British Art, Volume 4, Antique Collectors Club, 2008.

Yoxall, J. H., Collecting Old Miniatures, George H. Doran Company, New York, 1916.

Specific British Miniaturists:

Caffrey, Paul, John Comerford and The Portrait Miniature in Ireland, Kilkenny Archaeology Society, 1999.

Conner, Patrick, George Chinnery: 1774-1852 : Artist of India and the China Coast, Antique Collectors Club, 1993.

Edmond, Mary, Hilliard & Oliver, Robert Hale, Ltd., 1983.

Foskett, Daphne, John Smart, the Man and his Miniatures, Cory, Adams & Mackay, 1964.

Foskett, Daphne, Samuel Cooper (1608-1672), Faber and Faber, 1974.

Lloyd, Stephen, Raeburn's Rival, Archibald Skirving 1749-1819, National Galleries of Scotland, 1999.

Lloyd, Stephen, Richard and Maria Cosway, Regency Artists of Taste and Fashion, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1995.

Massey, Gertrude, Kings, Commoners and Me, Blackie, 1934.

Robertson, Emily, Andrew Robertson, Letters and Papers of Andrew Robertson,.Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1895.

Strong, Roy, Nicholas Hilliard, Joseph Publishers, 1975.

Williamson, George C., Andrew & Nathaniel Plimer: Miniature Painters, George Bell and Sons, 1903.

Williamson, George C., George Engleheart 1750-1829, Miniature Painter to George III, Bell, 1902.

Williamson, George C., Life and Works of Ozias Humphry, R.A., London, 1918.

Continental Portrait Miniatures:

Blattel, Harry, International Dictionary of Miniature Painters, French & European Pubns., 1992.

Colding, Torben Holck, Danish Miniaturists, Copenhagen, 1948.

Colding, Torben Holck, Miniature- og Emaillemaleri i Danmark 1606-1850, Aalborg, 1991.

Debillemot-Chardon, Mme. G., La Miniature sur Ivoire, Essai Historique et Traite Pratique, H. Laurens, 1910.

Genoud, Jean-Claude, 100 Ans des Miniatures Suisse, 1991.

Hofstetter, Bodo, Die Welt der Bildnisminiatur: Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Emil S. Kern, Bern, 2008.

Ivanova, Eugenia, Miniatures in the State Pushkin Museum St Petersburg, 1996..

Jean-Richard, Pierrette, Inventaire des Miniatures Sur Ivoire: Musee du Louvre, Musee D'Orsay, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994.

Karnaukhova, Lydia, Portrait Miniatures in the Collection of the State Pushkin Museum Moscow, EGO, 1997.

Keil, Robert, Portraitminiatures des Hauses Habsburg, 1999.

Komelova, G. N. and Printseva, G. A., Portrait Miniature in Russia XVIII-early XX Century from the Hermitage Collection, 1986.

Lemoine-Bouchard, Nathalie, Dictionnaire des Peintres en Miniature Actifs en France (1650-1850) , Amateur, Paris, 2008.

Lemoine-Bouchard, Nathalie, Les Miniatures Musee Cognacq-Jay, Paris, 2002.

Lund, E. F. S., Danske Malede Portræter, Copenhagen, 1895.

Martin, Heinz E.R., Miniaturen des Rokoko, Empire und Biedermeier, Keyser, 1981.

Mauclair, Camille, Historie de la Miniature Feminine Francaise, Albin Michel, 1925.

Mikhailova, K. V., and Smirnov, G. V., Portrait Miniatures from the Collection of the Russian Museum, 1974.

Nimmergut, Jorg, Miniaturen-Dosen, Battenberg Antiquitäten Kataloge.

Olausson, Magnus, Nationalmuseum Stockholm, Illustrated Catalogue, 2 Volumes, 2001.

Pappe, Bernd, Miniaturen des 19 Jahrhunderts aus der Sammlung Tansey, 2002.

Pappe, Bernd, and Schmieglitz-Otten, Juliane, Miniaturen Der Revolutionszeit 1789-1799 Aus Sammlung Tansey, Hirmer Verlag GmbH, 2005.

Reynolds, Graham, European Miniatures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996.

Schidlof, Leo R., The Miniature in Europe in the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries, Graz, Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt, 1964.

Schaffers-Bodenhausen, Karen, The Portrait Miniatures in the Collections of the House of Orange-Nassau, House of Orange-Nassau Historic Collections Trust, 1993.

Selinova, T. A., Portrait Miniature in Russia XVIII-XIX Centuries Historical Museum Moscow, 1988.

Von Boehn, Max, Miniatures and Silhouettes, B. Blom, 1970.

Portrait Miniatures From the Collection of the Russian Museum (2 volumes).

Specific Continental Miniaturists:

Brown, Jonathan, and Galassi,Susan Grace, Goya's Last Works, Yale University Press, 2006.

Colding, Torben Holck, Cornelius Hoyer, Copenhagen, 1961.

de Guillebon, Regine de Plinval, Pierre-Adolphe Hall 1739-1793, Paris, 2000.

Du Pasquier, J. Pierre-Édouard Dagoty 1775-1871 et la Miniature Bordelaise au XIXe Siècle, Chartres, 1974.

Falconi, Bernado, Giambattista Gigola 1767-1841, Skira, 2001.

Jollet, Etienne, Jean & Francois Clouet, London, 1998.

Canadian Portrait Miniatures:

Pepall, Rosalind M., Portrait Miniatures from the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1989.

Hickl-Szabo, H., Portrait Miniatures in the Royal Ontario Museum, 1981.

Indian Portrait Miniatures:

Welch, Stuart Cary, Room For Wonder: Indian Painting during the British Period 1760-1880, The American Federation of Arts, 1978.


Bury, Shirley, Jewellery 1789-1910: The International Style (2 volumes), Antique Collectors Club, 1999.

Fales, Martha Gandy, Jewelry in America: 1600-1900, Antique Collectors Club, 1995.

Scarisbrick , Diane, Jewellery in Britain 1066-1937, Michael Russell Publishing, 1994.

Rinhart, Floyd and Marian, American Miniature Case Art, A. S. Barnes, 1969.


Lockington, John, Bowles's New and Complete Book of Cyphers: Designed and Engraved on Twenty-four Copper-Plates, 1791.

Sheumaker, Helen, Love Entwined: The Curious History of Hairwork in America, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Speight, Alexanna, The Lock of Hair: Its History, Ancient and Modern, Natural and Artistic, London, 1872.

Terry, Garnet, A Book of New and Allegorical Devices, for Artists in General, 1795.


Barrow, John, Dictionarium Polygraphicum: Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.

Benes, Peter, The Art of Family: Genealogical Artifacts in New England, New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2002.

Corson, Richard, Fashions in Hair: The First 5000 Years, Peter Owens Publishers, second edition, 2001.

Kings, Marcia Pointon, Hanging the Head : Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England, Paul Mellon Centre, BA, 1998.

Oxford University Press, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004


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